Services

  • Petrography
    Petrology & Mineralogy

    Petrology & Mineralogy  Optical microscopy (transmission and reflected light) on thin sections, and polished thin sections (made in house) to produce petrographic descriptions that encompass mineralogy, textures and characterisation of samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) are used in conjunction to overcome the limitations of optical microscopy. Townend Mi...

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    Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Townend Mineralogy Laboratory has access to a Philips SEM and ZEISS SEM field emission instrument. It is particularly useful for: Locating very fine high atomic number minerals such as gold, uranium, tantalum, copper minerals in tails.  Elemental maps of ore samples – For example Aluminium, Silicon and Iron elemental maps of iron ore (particularly oolitic) sam...

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    X-Ray Diffraction

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)  X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is primarily used in the identification and quantification (rietveld method) of crystalline compounds in rocks, soils, and particulates. It is also an essential technique for researching the nature of clay minerals. At Townend Mineralogy Laboratory, we use a Panalytical Xpert X-Ray Diffraction system coupled with a state-of-the-art Pixel Detector t...

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    Clay Mineralogy

    Clay Mineralogy Townend Mineralogy Laboratory has a dedicated clay laboratory for the identification of clay minerals.  Clay mineral identification by random powder X-ray diffraction is typically erroneous.  TML undertakes the following processes for clay mineralogy: Separation of clay fraction of sample by Na-saturation, dispersion and removing cementing agents. Preparation of oriented samples....